Manuscript preparation - Clinical Studies

Manuscripts must be completed double-spaced and lines should be numbered for review purposes. Make sure that line numbers are assigned continuously, starting from the abstract and ending after the references. Please insert page numbers in the bottom, right-hand corner of each successive page beginning at the second page (do not assign a page number to the Title page). All files (except illustrative elements) should be uploaded as Microsoft Word documents.

Title page

The title page provides general information about the manuscript. The following informative units are compulsory:

  • Title: The title should be concise and informative. It represents the content of the manuscript and should serve electronic retrieval of the article. Be cautious on using abbreviations and formulae.
  • Author(s) information: The highest academic degree of each contributor should be listed, including the names of the institutions/organizations for which they work. Please provide the e-mail addresses and full contact details of all authors, including postal address and telephone number. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence.
  • Word count: Please add the number of manuscript words, excluding abstracts, acknowledgements, tables, figures and references.
  • Conflict of interest declaration: Conflict of interests information for each author (both author’s conflict of interests and sources of support for the work) should be summarized on the title page and presented in further detail on the conflict of interest form.

Manuscript structure

Manuscripts submitted to the research in cellular medicine and natural health section should be divided into clearly defined sections. We strongly advise you to build your manuscript in the following way:

1. Abstract. This paragraph offers a concise and balanced reflection of the contents of the manuscript and is subdivided as follows:

  • Introduction: elaborates briefly on the background of the study and clearly states its main objectives.
  • Methods: basic procedures, materials and study parameters. Summarizes the experimental design and basic methodology.
  • Results: the main findings including key statistical results and trends.
  • Discussion: provides a sharp summary of your interpretations and conclusions, including clinical implications.Please avoid lengthy background and confusing abbreviations. Most electronic databases index titles and abstracts only. The abstracts gain the widest exposure, so ensure that your abstract truly reflects the content of the manuscript and includes sufficient key information to enable references to your manuscript.

Keywords: please provide four to seven keywords that do not appear in the title of the document. Abbreviations or ambiguous terms are not allowed.

2. Introduction. Situate your study in a theoretical context, familiarize the recipient with the rationale behind your research project and introduce your objectives via an inverted triangle structure. The following details should be included:

  • A review of the scientific literature available on the subject discussed, the current understanding, rationale and gaps in the modern understanding.
  • Narrow down to the specific problem investigated, main objectives and eventually the hypotheses tested.

Scientific background information should be provided only to the extent that it serves a better understanding of the objective and study rationale. If feasible, please provide a forecast of potential study outcomes.

Style: The journal of CM&NH encourages the use of the active voice, and fosters clear phrases.

3. Methods and materials

Document how the study/experiment was conducted and provide the rationale for the adaptation of specific procedures or materials. The methods/experimental section of the manuscript should include a statement that all experiments were carried out in compliance with the relevant laws regarding protection of participants (human and animal), and state the committee(s) that approved the experiments.

The Journal of CM & NH recommends inclusion of the following elements:

  • Account of materials deployed. Include (specialized) materials/equipment used in the study that are not covered by basic lab equipment. When targeting human or animal subjects, inclusion criteria should be formulated explicitly. Additionally, information on subject allocation to experimental groups (if relevant) should be provided.
  • Material preparations. A detailed recapitulation of (material) preparations prior to protocol implementation. In the event of drug evaluation, please document brand names, manufacturers, concentrations, dosages and infusion Please provide grounds for efficacy evaluation and document the administering of sedative drugs.
  • The research protocol. Document experimental manipulations, measurement method/assessment procedures whereby succeeding procedures are presented in the order of actual performance, commencing with baseline measures, independent variable manipulation and concluding with assessments of dependent variable alterations.
  • Provide a description of statistical and qualitative data analysis methods.

For transparency reasons, materials and methods can be separated.

The methodology and material paragraphs should provide enough quantitative and qualitative information to enable study duplication and evaluation of statistical procedures. Secondly, enough detail should be provided to facilitate an assessment of the validity of the results and conclusions.

4. Results

Study findings should be presented objectively, using both text and figures/tables. Please ensure a rational sequence while presenting what was observed in the course of investigation, and avoid interpretations.

Statistical reports (exact data) such as measures, counts, rates and percentages should be presented in tables, figures and graphs whereas key outcomes and associations should be reserved for textual fields unescorted by excessive detail.

Do not assume that non-textual presentations speak for themselves and use illustrative materials effectively. Numeric data should not solely be presented as derivatives (like percentages) but also as absolute numbers.

All Tables, figures and graphs, accompanied by headings,- must be numbered successively. Excessive repetitions or text-graph data duplication should be avoided.

5. Discussion
Offer an outline of the main results, explain the meaning of the findings and analyze your data in appropriate depth. The following elements should be included:

  • The main findings of the study
  • An interpretation of the results: relate study findings to previous study outcomes and highlight their significance. Decide if your hypothesis is supported or whether it should be rejected. Offer potential explanatory mechanisms: mechanisms that may account for the study outcomes.
  • Consider alternative plausible explanations for the findings.
  • Explore the significance of study results for future research and clinical practice.
  • Identify and acknowledge study limitations.
  • Make suggestions for future research directions.
  • Conclusion: offer a short conclusion based on the results and discussion, it may include suggestions for practice change.

Avoid presentations of new data or needless repetition of information or data that has been introduced in previous sections.
Focus instead on the decisive, meaningful facets of the study. Evade speculation, over interpretation or inflation of the significance of study results.

6. Acknowledgements
Significant attributions, both in the process of designing, conducting or reporting the study, as well as sources of funding or material supply, can be acknowledged in this section.

7. References

Please document all sources accurately. We encourage the use of original research articles. References should be numbered in order of initial appearance in the text and appear in the Reference List in numerical order, following the citation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) reference citation format. For the complete style manual online please go to

The editor will check the accuracy of all reference citations. However, we want to stress the importance of checking all references before submitting the paper to the journal. Every reference listed should be cited in the text and vice versa.

Below please find an overview of the main AMA-guidelines [PDF – 337 kB]

Guideline Manuscript Preparation – Clinical Studies [PDF – 917 kB]